Augmented Reality

Introduction to Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing field in Virtual Reality research. The global environment provides a wealth of information that is difficult to duplicate on a computer. This is evidenced by the worlds used in virtual environments. Either these worlds are very simplified, like environments created for entertainment or games or a system that can create a more realistic environment has a price of a million dollars, such as flight simulators. The Augmented Reality system creates a composite view for the user.

This is a combination of the real scene viewed by the user and the virtual scene generated by the computer, which complements the scene with additional information. In all these Applications, the augmented reality presented to the user increases the effectiveness of this person and the perception of the world. The ultimate goal is to create such a system that the user could not distinguish the real world from its virtual increase. It depicts the merger and correct recording of data from a preliminary operational investigation of images on the patient’s head. Providing this view to the surgeon in the operating room can improve their performance and possibly eliminate the need for any other calibration devices during the procedure.

What is Augmented Reality

The process of overlaying digital images in our real environment, creating a sense of illusion or Virtual Reality. Recent developments have made this technology available using a Smartphone.

How is it used?

Augmented reality is hidden content, often hidden behind image markers, which can be included in print and film media, if the marker is displayed for a suitable period of time, in a stable position so that the Application can identify and analyze it. Depending on the content, the marker can remain visible.

It is used recently by advertisers, where it is very popular to create a 3D rendering of a product, such as a car or a football shoe, and run it as an overlay on the marker. This allows the consumer to see the image 360 ​​degrees (more or less, sometimes the base element can be difficult to view) the product. Depending on the quality of the increase, this may indicate the approximate size of the element and allow the consumer to carry the item if viewed on the phone.

Alternate settings include printing the marker and holding it in front of the webcam attached to the computer. The marker and background image visible by the webcam are displayed on the screen, which allows the user to place the marker in places such as the forehead (to create a mask) or move the marker to control the character in the game.

How does it work?

Using a mobile application, the mobile phone camera identifies and interprets the marker, often a black and white barcode. The software analyzes the marker and creates an overlay on the virtual image on the mobile phone screen, tied to the position of the camera. This means that the application is working with the camera to interpret the angles and distance from the mobile phone from the marker. Because of the amount of computation a phone must do to make an image or model above the marker, often only Smartphone’s are able to support the augmented reality with success. The phones need a camera, and if the AR data is not stored in the application, a good 3G connection is available.

History of Augmented Reality

The beginning of Augmented Reality AR, as we define it, refers to the work of Sutherland in the 1960s, which used end-to-end HMD to represent 3D graphics. However, only in the last decade there has been enough work to treat Augmented Reality AR as a field of research. In 1997, Azuma published a poll that identified the field, described many problems and summarized events up to this point. Since then, AR’s growth and progress have been remarkable.

In the late 1990s, several conferences on Augmented Reality AR were launched, including an international seminar and symposium on expanded reality, an international symposium on mixed reality and a seminar on the creation of an expanded reality. Some well-funded AR-oriented organizations were formed, in particular the Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory in Japan and the Arvika consortium in Germany.

Applications of Augmented Reality

Main classes of applications:

  • Medical
  • Manufacturing and repair
  • Annotation and visualization
  • Robot path planning
  • Entertainment
  • Military aircraft

Augmented Reality vs. Virtual Reality 

Augmented Reality Virtual Reality
System augments the real world scene. Totally Immersive environment.
User maintains a sense of presence in real world. Senses are under control of system.
Needs a mechanism to combine virtual and real worlds. Need a mechanism to feed virtual world to user.
Hard to register real and virtual. Hard to make VR world interesting.


Implementation Framework

  1. Hardware

The main components of our system are the computer (with 3D graphics acceleration), the GPS system, originally different GPS and now the kinematic GPS + GLONASS in Real Time, the transparent display is oriented to the track, and the wireless network is attached to the backpack. The user also has a small Computers  with a stylus control, which can talk to the backpack computer over a broadband radio channel. Thus, we can control the material displayed on the WOM display from the portable screen.

I also provide a more straightforward cursor control mechanism in the wearable display head by installing a track on the back of the portable display where it can be easily manipulated (we inverted the horizontal axis) while holding the display vertically.

To make the system as easy and convenient as possible, you can use the ready equipment to avoid the costs, effort and time associated with creating our own. Over the years, lighter and faster Computers with battery power with 3D graphics cards and finally graduated to notebooks with 3D graphics processors.

  1. Software

Coterie software infrastructure, a prototyping environment that provides language-level support for distributed virtual environments. The main application of the mobile AR was launched on the backpack Computers  and received continuous input from the GPS system, orientation guide and pad (mounted on the back panel of the PDA). It generates and displays, at an Interactive frame rate, superimposed three-dimensional graphics and user interface components on the wearable display head.

In a handheld computer, we ran arbitrary applications that talked with the main backpack attachment through a link to Coterie / Repo. In our first prototype, we simply ran a custom HTTP server and a Web  browser on a handheld computer, intercepted all URL requests and links, and thus established a two-way link between the backpack and the PDA.

Advantages of Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) is a representation provided by virtual Computers images of mixed reality in which the real and virtual worlds interact in real time. The advantages and disadvantages of the technology are listed below. Comment on, based on your experience with augmented reality.

  • Can increase knowledge and information.
  • People can share experiences with each other in real time over long distances.
  • Games that provide an even more real experience.
  • Things come to life on people mobile.
  • Form of escapism.

Challenges of Augmented Reality

  1. Technological Limitations

Despite significant progress in core security technologies, they continue to primarily prevent the deployment of many AR applications. Displays, trackers and AR systems as a whole should become more accurate, lighter, cheaper and less energy-intensive. Since the user must carry a PC, sensors, display, batteries and everything else, the end result is a heavy backpack. Today, laptops have only one processor, which limits the amount of visual and hybrid tracking that we can do.

  1. User Interface Limitation

We need to better understand how to display data for the user and how the user should interact with the data. AR introduces a number of high-level tasks such as the need to determine what information should be provided, what the corresponding view for this data is and how the user should make requests and reports. Recent work suggests that the creation and presentation of narrative representations and structures can lead to a more realistic and rich experience in the field of AR.

  1. Social Acceptance

The last task is social recognition. Given a system with ideal equipment and an intuitive interface, AR can become an accepted part of the user’s daily life, like a mobile phone or a personal digital assistant. Through movies and television, many people are familiar with images of simulated AR. Nevertheless, the conviction of the user to wear the system means solving a number of problems. They range from fashion to confidentiality. To date, little attention is paid to these fundamental issues. However, they must be resolved before the AR becomes generally accepted.

Conclusions of Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality is another step in the digital age, as we will soon see how our environments will dynamically change either through the Smartphone,  Smart Glasses the windscreen, and even windows in the near future, to display the enhanced content and media right in front of us. It has amazing applications that can very well let us live our lives more productively, safer and more informative.

Perhaps in the future we will see that our environments will be expanded to display information based on our own interests, using built-in RFID tags and add-ons, implemented with holographic projections, surrounding the environment, without using inclusion technology. It would be incredible no longer to wonder where to eat, where to go or what to do; our environment will facilitate our interactions. We will no longer be able to understand what is real and what is virtual, our world will become a convergence of digital and physical media.